Urang Rumani, acok disabuik pulo Roma atau Gipsi, adolah kalompok etnik Indo-Arya nan bamukim di wilayah Balkan, biasonyo iduik bapindah-pindah, ado pulo nan marantau ka sarato panjuru dunia. Urang Rumani baasa dari India Utaro,[47][48][49] dari Rajasthan, Haryana, jo Punjab nan kini manjadi bagian dari India.[48][49]

Urang Rumani
Romani
Flag of the Romani people.svg
Marawa Rumani dibuek tahun 1933 dan ditarimo 1971 jo Kongres Rumani Dunia
Romani people around the world.svg
Total populasi
2–20 juta[1][2][3][4]
 Amerika Sarikat 1.000.000[5]
 Brasil 800.000[6]
 Spanyol 750.000–1.100.000[7][8][9][10][11]
 Rumania 619.007-1.850.000[12][8][13][14]
 Turki 500.000–2.750.000[8][15][16][17]
 Parancih 350.000–500.000[18][19]
 Bulgaria 325.343–750.000[20][21]
 Hongaria 309.632–870.000[22][23]
 Argentina 300.000
 Imperium Baritania Rayo 225.000[24][8][25]
 Rusia 205.007–825.000[8]
 Serbia 147.604–600.000[26][27][8]
 Itali 120.000–180.000[28][8]
 Yunani 111.000–300.000[29][30]
 Jerman 105.000[8][31]
 Slovakia 105.738–490.000[32][33][34]
 Iran 100.000–110.000[35]
 Republik Makedonia 53.879–197.000[8][36]
 Swedia 50.000–100.000[8][37]
 Ukraina 47.587–260.000[8][38]
 Portugal 40.000–52.000[8]
 Austria 40.000–50.000
 Kosovo 36.000[8][39]
 Balando 32.000–40.000[8]
 Republik Irlandia 22.435–37.500[8]
 Chili 20.000[40]
 Polandia 17.049–32.500[8][41]
 Kroasia 16.975–35.000[8][42]
 Meksiko 15.850[43]
 Moldova 12.778–107.100[8][44]
 Finlandia 10.000-12.000[45]
Bahaso
Bahaso Rumani, Rumpun bahaso Para-Rumani, bahaso tampek bamukim
Agamo
Nan tabanyak Kristen[46]
Islam[46]
Shaktisme tradisi dari Hindu[46]
Mitologi Rumani
Kalompok etnis takaik
Dom, Lom, Domba; jo kalompok etnik Indo-Arya lainnyo

Panamuan genetik manyatokan Urang Romani baasa dari satu kalompok nan maninggakan India pado tahun 512. Panilitian genetik mambuek jurnal banamo European Journal of Human Genetics manyatokan labiah dari 70% urang laki-laki baasa dari satu garih nan mambuek lain Urang Rumani dari urang-urang lainnyo.[50] Urang Romani tibo di Asia Barat jo Eropa sakironyo pado tahun 1007.[51] Urang Romani acok dihubuangkan jo kalompok etnik Indo-Arya lainnyo, Urang Dom: dikatokan kaduo kalompok iko tapisah nan satu jo nan lain nan punyo kasamoan sijarah. Sacaro khusus, pitarah Urang Rumani jo Urang Dom kalua dari India Utaro sakironyo antaro abaik ka-6 jo abaik ka-11.[51]

RujuakanSuntiang

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  2. "EU demands action to tackle Roma poverty". BBC News. 5 April 2011. 
  3. "The Roma". Nationalia. Diakses tanggal 20 November 2015. 
  4. "Rom". Encyclopædia Britannica. Diakses tanggal 15 September 2010. ... estimates of the total world Roma population range from two million to five million. 
  5. Kayla Webley (13 October 2010). "Hounded in Europe, Roma in the U.S. Keep a Low Profile". Time. Diakses tanggal 3 October 2015. Today, estimates put the number of Roma in the U.S. at about one million. 
  6. "Falta de políticas públicas para ciganos é desafio para o governo" [Lack of public policy for Romani is a challenge for the administration] (dalam bahasa Portuguese). R7. 2011. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 11 January 2012. Diakses tanggal 22 January 2012. The Special Secretariat for the Promotion of Racial Equality estimates the number of "ciganos" (Romanis) in Brazil at 800,000 (2011). The 2010 IBGE Brazilian National Census encountered Romani camps in 291 of Brazil's 5,565 municipalities. 
  7. "Roma integration in Spain". European Commission – European Commission (dalam bahasa Inggris). 
  8. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Roma and Travellers Team. TOOLS AND TEXTS OF REFERENCE. Estimates on Roma population in European countries" (PDF)Council of Europe Roma and Travellers Division 
  9. Estimated by the Society for Threatened Peoples [1]
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  11. "Diagnóstico social de la comunidad gitana en España : Un análisis contrastado de la Encuesta del CIS a Hogares de Población Gitana 2007" (PDF). mscbs.gob.es. 2007. Tabla 1. La comunidad gitana de España en el contexto de la población romaní de la Unión Europea. Población Romaní: 750.000 [...] Por 100 habitantes: 1,87% [...] se podrían llegar a barajar cifras [...] de 1.100.000 personas 
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  13. 2011 census data, based on table 7 Population by ethnicity, gives a total of 621,573 Roma in Romania. This figure is disputed by other sources, because at the local level, many Roma declare a different ethnicity (mostly Romanian, but also Hungarian in Transylvania and Turkish in Dobruja). Many are not recorded at all, since they do not have ID cards [2]. International sources give higher figures than the official census(UNDP's Regional Bureau for Europe Archived 7 October 2006 di Wayback Machine., World Bank, International Association for Official Statistics Archived 26 February 2008 di Wayback Machine.).
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  19. Gorce, Bernard (22 July 2010). "Roms, gens du voyage, deux réalités différentes". La Croix. Diakses tanggal 21 October 2016. [MANUAL TRANS.] The ban prevents statistics on ethnicity to give a precise figure of French Roma, but we often quote the number 350,000. For travellers, the administration counted 160,000 circulation titles in 2006 issued to people aged 16 to 80 years. Among the travellers, some have chosen to buy a family plot where they dock their caravans around a local section (authorized since the Besson Act of 1990). 
  20. Население по местоживеене, възраст и етническа група [Population by place of residence, age and ethnic group]. Bulgarian National Statistical Institute (dalam bahasa Bulgaria). Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2 June 2012. Diakses tanggal 22 June 2015.  Self declared
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  23. János, Pénzes; Patrik, Tátrai; Zoltán, Pásztor István (2018). "A roma népesség területi megoszlásának változása Magyarországon az elmúlt évtizedekben" (dalam bahaso hu). Területi Statisztika 58 (1): 3–26. doi:10.15196/TS580101. http://www.ksh.hu/docs/hun/xftp/terstat/2018/01/ts580101.pdf. 
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  25. "RME", Ethnologue 
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  34. "Po deviatich rokoch spočítali Rómov, na Slovensku ich žije viac ako 400-tisíc". SME (dalam bahasa Slovak). SK: SITA. 25 September 2013. Diakses tanggal 25 September 2013. 
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  44. 2004 census
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  46. a b c Gall, Timothy L, ed. (1998), Worldmark Encyclopedia of Culture & Daily Life, 4. Europe, Cleveland, OH: Eastword, hlm. 316, 318, 'Religion: An underlay of Hinduism with an overlay of either Christianity or Islam (host country religion)'; Roma religious beliefs are rooted in Hinduism. Roma believe in a universal balance, called kuntari... Despite a 1,000-year separation from India, Roma still practice 'shaktism', the worship of a god through his female consort... 
  47. Hancock 2002, hlm. xx.
  48. a b K. Meira Goldberg; Ninotchka Devorah Bennahum; Michelle Heffner Hayes (2015). Flamenco on the Global Stage: Historical, Critical and Theoretical Perspectives. McFarland. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-7864-9470-5. https://books.google.com/books?id=AS61CgAAQBAJ&pg=PA50. Diakses pado 8 Desember 2015. 
  49. a b Simon Broughton; Mark Ellingham; Richard Trillo (1999). World Music: Africa, Europe and the Middle East. Rough Guides. p. 147. ISBN 978-1-85828-635-8. https://archive.org/details/roughguidetoworl00simo. Diakses pado 8 Desember 2015. 
  50. Kalaydjieva, Luba; Calafell, Francesc; Jobling, Mark A; Angelicheva, Dora; de Knijff, Peter; Rosser, Zoe H; Hurles, Matthew; Underhill, Peter; Tournev, Ivailo; Marushiakova, Elena; Popov, Vesselin (2011), "Patterns of inter- and intra-group genetic diversity in the Vlax Roma as revealed by Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA lineages" (PDF), European Journal of Human Genetics, 9 (2): 97–104, doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5200597, PMID 11313742, diarsipkan dari versi asli (PDF) tanggal 9 December 2014 
  51. a b Kenrick, Donald (5 July 2007). Historical Dictionary of the Gypsies (Romanies) (edisi ke-2nd). Scarecrow Press. p. xxxvii. ISBN 978-0-8108-6440-5. https://books.google.com/books?id=tQKyAAAAQBAJ&pg=PR37. "The Gypsies, or Romanies, are an ethnic group that arrived in Europe around the 14th century. Scholars argue about when and how they left India, but it is generally accepted that they did emigrate from northern India some time between the 6th and 11th centuries, then crossed the Middle East and came into Europe."