Panduduak asali Taiwan

Panduduak asali Taiwan, atau daulu disabuik juo aborigin Taiwan, urang Formosa, urang Austronesia Taiwan,[2][3] atau urang Gaoshan,[4] adolah urang-urang katurunan pribumi Taiwan, nan jumalahnyo kini mancapai 569.008 jiwa atau 2,38% dari populasi pulau itu — atau dapek juo dianggap mancapai 800.000 jiwa, kok mamparatian potensi pangakuan sacaro rasmi panduduak pribumi dataran randah Taiwan sabagai urang asali Taiwan di masa datang. Panalitian tabaru manunjuakan baso mungkin niniak muyang urang-urang itu alah iduik manatap di Taiwan salamo labiah kurang 5.500 taun sacaro relatif taisolasi sabalun muloinyo imigrasi gadang urang Han (Cino) dari daratan Cino pado abaik ka-17.[5] Panduduak asali Taiwan tamasuak rumpun bangso Austronesia, nan taubuang jo ikatan bahaso sarato genetika jo urang-urang Austronesia lainnyo.[6] Kalompok-kalompok nan baubuangan dakek jo panduduak asali Taiwan antaro lain urang Polinesia, sarato sabagian gadang urang-urang Filipina, Indonesia, Malaysia, jo Brunei.

Panduduak asali Taiwan
Total populasi
569.008 atau 2.38% dari populasi Taiwan
(Panduduak asali non-status dikacualian)
Kawasan jo populasi nan signifikan
Taiwan
Bahaso
Atayal, Bunun, Amis, Paiwan, bahaso-bahaso Formosa lainnyo.
bahaso-bahaso Han (Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka)
Agamo
Mayoritas Kristen, minoritas Animisme[1]

Salamo baabaik-abaik, panduduak asali Taiwan maalami pasaingan ekonomi jo sarangan maliter dari babagai banso asiang nan badatangan ka pulau iko. Kabijakan-kabijakan pamerentah nan tapusek nan dibuek untuak mandorong pageseran bahaso jo asimilasi budayo, sarato ubuangan taruih-manaruih jo banso pandatang malalui padagangan, pakawinan campua jo paroses patukaran budayo lainnyo, alah maakibaikan tingkek-tingkek tatantu kamatian bahaso jo ilangnyo jati diri budayo nan asali. Misanyo, dari sakita 26 bahaso panduduak asali Taiwan nan dikataui (sacaro basamo-samo disabuik sabagai bahaso Formosa), saindaknyo sapuluah bahaso alah punah, limo di antaronyo ampia mati[7] jo babarapo lainnyo sampai tingkek tatantu tarancam punah. Bahaso-bahaso iko sasungguahnyo punyo arati sijarah nan unik, dek karano sabagian gadang ahli sijarah bahaso bapandapek baso Taiwan adolah tanah aia asali dari rumpun bahaso Austronesia.[5]

Panutua bahaso Austronesia di Pulau Taiwan daulunyo taseba di sabagian gadang wilayah Pagunuangan Tangah nan curam, sarato bakalompok di kampuang-kampuang di sapanjang dataran aluvial (tanah andapan). Kini, sabagian gadang panduduak asali Taiwan iduik di pagunuangan jo di kota-kota.

Masarakaik adaik Taiwan maalami kakurangan ekonomi jo sosial, tamasuak tingginyo tingkek pangangguran jo pandidiakan nan di bawah standar. Sajak awa 1980-an, banyak kalompok panduduak asali alah sacaro aktif mampajuangan hak panantuan nasik surang jo pangambangan ekonomi nan labiah tinggi.[8] Bangkiknyo kabanggaan etnis ditunjuakan dalam babagai caro dek para panduduak asali, misanyo jo manggabuangan unsua-unsua budayonyo ka dalam musik pop nan maraiah sukses sacaro komersial. Upayo sadang dilakuan dek masarakaik adaik untuak maiduikan baliak praktik budayo tradisional jo malastarian bahaso tradisionalnyo. Festival Budayo Austronesia di Kota Taitung adolah salah satu sarana di mano anggota masarakaik mamparomosian budayo asali. Salain itu, babarapo komunitas panduduak asali alah talibaik sacaro laweh dalam industri pariwisata jo ekowisata nan batujuan mancapai paningkekan kamandirian ekonomi jo malastarian budayonyo.[9]

Catatan kakiSuntiang

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  2. Rigger, Shelley (2013). Why Taiwan Matters: Small Island, Global Powerhouse. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9781442230026. https://books.google.com/?id=7QZ1AQAAQBAJ. 
  3. "One Island, Twenty Tongues". Ketagalan Media. 3 May 2017. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 4 May 2017. Diakses tanggal 6 May 2017. 
  4. Hattaway (2003), hlm. 39, 93, 425.
  5. a b Blust (1999).
  6. Trejaut, Jean A.; Poloni, Estella S.; Yen, Ju-Chen; Lai, Ying-Hui; Loo, Jun-Hun; Lee, Chien-Liang; He, Chun-Lin; Lin, Marie (2014-01-01). "Taiwan Y-chromosomal DNA variation and its relationship with Island Southeast Asia". BMC Genetics 15: 77. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-15-77. ISSN 1471-2156. PMID 24965575. 
  7. Zeitoun & Yu (2005), hlm. 167.
  8. Hsu (1991), hlm. 95–9.
  9. Anderson (2000), hlm. 283–90.

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